Tamadun India (50)

Sati in the Modern times
In general, before this custom was outlawed in 1829, there were a few hundred officially recorded incidences each year.
The efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy and other Hindu reformers greatly impacted the movement to outlaw this practice.
Even after the custom was outlawed, this custom did not vanish completely. It took few decades before this custom almost vanished
In 1987 an eighteen years old widow, Roop Kanwar, committed Sati in a village of Rajasthan
The ‘Sati’ version is that Roop told her father-in-law she wanted to commit Sati.
Roop was forced to commit Sati.
The case went to court, but no one was charged with her murder.
Even in the year 2000, you hear about Sati occurring in rural villages.

Tamadun India (49)

Tokoh Penyair dan Falsafah

Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: علامہ سر محمد اقبال; November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was a Muslim poet, philosopher and politician born in Sialkot, in the British Raj (now part of Pakistan since the 1947 Partition of India), whose poetry in Urdu, Arabic and Persian is considered to be among the greatest of the modern era,  and whose vision of an independent state for the Muslims of British India was to inspire the creation of Pakistan.  He is commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال‎, Allama meaning “Scholar”.)

Tamadun India (48)

Muslim Scholar and Thinker

Modern Era, 20th Century

Tokoh Gerakan Islam



Syed Abul A’ala Maududi (Urdu: سید ابو الاعلىٰ مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi and Modudi) (September 25, 1903) – September 22, 1979), also known as Molana (Maulana) or Shaikh Syed Abul A’ala Mawdudi, was a Sunni Pakistani journalist, theologian, Muslim Revivalist Leader and political philosopher, and a major 20th century Islamist thinker. He was also a prominent political figure in his home country (Pakistan). He was also the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami the Islamic revivalist party.

Tamadun India (47)

Leader of the non-violent independence movement in British India’s Northwest Frontier, known as the Frontier Gandhi.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890 – 20 January 1988) (Pashto/Urdu: خان عبد الغفار خان, Hindi: ख़ान अब्दुल ग़्फ़्फ़ार ख़ान) was a Pashtun political and spiritual leader known for his non-violent opposition to British Rule in India. A lifelong pacifist, a devout Muslim, and a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he was also known as Badshah Khan (also Bacha Khan, Urdu, Pashto: lit., “King Khan”), and Sarhaddi Gandhi (Urdu, Hindi lit., “Frontier Gandhi”). In 1985 he was nominated for the Nobel peace prize. In 1987 he became the first non-citizen to be awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award.

Tamadun India (46)

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai

Rafi Ahmed Kidwai (Hindi: रफ़ी अहमद क़िदवई), (18 February, 1894 – 24 October, 1954) was an Indian independence activist. He came from Barabanki District of United Provinces, now Uttar Pradesh, in north India.

Tamadun India (45)

Ajmal Khan Hakim Ajmal Khan’s (I863-1927) ancestors, a distinguished line of physicians, had come to India during the reign of Babar, the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. All members of the family of Hakim Ajmal Khan were Unani doctors. The family had been practicing this ancient form of medicine from the time of the Mughal rulers. They were then known as the Rais of Delhi.

Tamadun India (44)

Maulana Azad  was a prominent leader of the Indian National Congress and famously rebuked Muslim League’s two-nation theory and instead advocated for Hindu-Muslim unity. Shown here is Azad (right) with Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India.

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Sumbangan Muslim India:
Aspek Kemerdekaan

Date of birth: 11 November 1888
Place of birth: Mecca, Ottoman Empire (now in Saudi Arabia)
Date of death: 22 February 1958
Place of death: Delhi, India
Movement: Indian independence movement
Major organizations: Indian National Congress

Tamadun India (42)

  • Kemunculan Islam di India telah melahirkan satu corak ketamadunan bercorak agama yang baru di India.
  • Meskipun ajaran ini tidak diiktiraf oleh Islam, konsep-konsep seperti monotisme, syahid, tidak menyembah patung memperlihatkan adaptasi unsur-unsur keislaman yang nyata.

Tamadun India (41)

  • Agama Sikh muncul di India sekitar abad ke-15M.
  • Dikemukakan oleh Kabir yang kemudiannya dikembangkan oleh Guru Nanak (1469-1533).
  • Ia adalah gabungan unsur-unsur keagamaan yang ada dalam Islam dan Hindu.
  • Kabir yang tidak memahami secara mendalam ajaran Islam terpengaruh dengan persekitaran kehidupan masyarakat Hindu telah merangka gagasan awal agama Sikh ini.