## The important factors

One undergraduate project of one student was on green residential building. She found that the buyers of energy efficient home considered green home is important  for the future of earth through minimizing the use of energy, impacts on environment, minimizing transport energy etc. Even though the price of green home is higher than conventional home for identical acreage e.g. built-up area, number of bed room, etc. The buyers also considered some important factors along with the green itself such as safety, home and workplace distance, convenient shopping and convenient access to public transport.

Public transport is a critical component when authority wish to reduce emission and energy from transportation sector, since more than 90 percent of Malaysian household own private transport.

## An interesting finding

One of my students is currently doing her undergraduate project on the implementation environmentally friendly storm water management in Johor Bahru. One interesting finding shows a correlation between the capacity of detention storage (a flood infrastructure that withhold storm water temporarily and release it later when rainfall recedes) and area of inundation made by storm water. It is a common sense that the correlation is linear. However, the finding shows a power-based correlation instead of linear as shown in the figure below.

Even though it is based on three-point data, which is essentially low reliability, but the correlation is almost perfect with coefficient determination R^2=0.99. When the correlation is assumed as linear, the R^2 is only 0.84. The correlation itself can be given by [FLOODED_AREA, in ha]=2,407.4*[RETENTION_STORAGE]^0.65. If the graph was based on many data points (at least 10) the correlation becomes certainly reliable.

A question: why does the correlation in non-linear instead of linear form? A logic explanation on this phenomenon is that the more storm water being caught and stored in the retention storage, the less runoff generated and less saturated soil existed.

Another issue is that, from the graph we can see that flood inundation may not be zero as retention capacity is getting higher and asymptotically approaching infinity. It is true since flood is dealing with stochastic process, where storm water intensity can be any quantity.

I have had 17 undergraduate students under my supervision to do undergraduate projects. Actually, solid waste management is not my research interest. I published papers on solid waste management by accident. First, because of one of my doctoral students has done research about solid waste management in a developing city, another reason was that many action research projects during my term with Southeast Asia Urban Environmental Management Applications Projects (SEA-UEMA Projects) were on waste management. Thus, like it or not I must love solid waste management.

This time, I have 3 undergraduate students who are doing their undergraduate project on solid waste management, and one student on urban drainage and flood. One bad habit thing that most students have is they submitted everything about the project i.e. story board, research instruments, draft of the chapters, abstract, etc. in the last minute of the deadline.

Title:

Involvement of School community of Politeknik Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah on 3Rs.

Session:

Space 2016/2017

Abstract:

This study attempts to understand the level of involvement of the school community i.e. students and staff of the Politeknik Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah on the practices of waste reduction, reuse and recycle. The respondents were staff and student of this school.

## Undergraduate Project #14 (SPACE): Rosli Bin Puasa

Title:
Level of understanding of officers of Hang Tuah Jaya City Council on the implementation of low carbon city

Session:
Space 2016/2017

Abstract:

This study examines the level of awareness of the officers of Hang Tuah Jaya City Council on the implementation of low carbon city within the administration of Hang Tuah Jaya City Council. The study was carried out based on the fact that the officers must understand first prior to disseminate the program of low carbon city. The study acquired the opinion and perception of the officers within the administration of Hang Tuah Jaya City Council with the total number of respondents of 101. Study found that majority of the officers are aware about the program and the low carbon city knowledge, through training and media campaigns. They also understand the impacts on low carbon city to the city environment, energy consumption, future of the city, and the need of sustainable development.

## Undergraduate Project #13 (SPACE): Arierafida Binti Abdul Rauf

Title:
Level of understanding of the citizens on green-building concept at Cascade Residency, Kota Damansara, Selangor

Session:
Space 2016/2017

Abstract:

Unavailable.

Title:
The impacts of building use changes in Bangsar Baru Residential Area, Kuala Lumpur

Session:
2015/2016

Abstract:

Building use is one of the most important elements in urban areas. For instance, residential areas have high social values that can provide shelter and place of privacy. Commercial areas provide daily supplies to the community, and so on. However, urbanization has changed the demand of certain building uses, especially the changes from residential to commercial uses, then the conflicts or impacts started. There were nine units of bungalow in Bangsar Baru which have changed in function. This study aims at identifying the characteristics and factors which affect the functional changes of building including the impacts afterwards. There were two rows of terrace houses facing the bungalows were surveyed. This survey involved 29 single-story and 31 double-story terrace houses. By employing convenient sampling, there were only 42 respondents were available to be the respondents, others refused for many reasons. These respondents included renter and owner of the houses, as well as local people who understood the matter.Ten officers from local authority were interviewed. The data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis, mean score, reliability analysis and chi-square analysis. The results showed that the changing of the building function were mainly due to strategic location of the houses as perceived by respondent with the mean value of 4.52 out of 5.0. The other important factors were accessibility (4.16), uniqueness of the area (4.05), sufficient urban facilities (3.89), lack of development control (3.68), weak law enforcement (3.41). The impacts perceived by the respondents were noise and nuisance (4.61), traffic congestion (4.50) and illegal parking (4.30). This finding shows the need of appropriate development control and law enforcement are deemed necessary.

## Undergraduate Project #11: Akrammusalam Bin Selamat

Title:
Municipal solid waste management in the commercial area of Taman Universiti and Taman Pulai Utama, Skudai

Session:
2016/2017

Abstract:

This study observed municipal solid waste management in the commercial area of Taman Universiti and Taman Pulai Utama, Skudai, Johor Bahru. The objectives of the study are to identify factors influencing and the effects of the waste disposal issue at the commercial areas on the environment and local residents as well as surrounding areas. The study attempted to assess the respondents’ behavior and their views to improve the solid waste management. The issue of waste disposal at commercial areas in towns and cities is very alarming. This is because the management of solid waste collection system that is inefficient and incompetent causing waste problems and issues affecting the environment and odor pollution. The study was conducted by acquiring seventy (N=70) respondents consisting of business persons and workers of that shops or stores. Questionnaires were distributed randomly to the selected respondents based on shop type and demographic criteria. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and mean score analysis. Types of shop or store, ethnicity, age, level of education and income have significant impact on waste disposal in commercial area. The result showed that the people’s behavior on disposing waste was at the highest score selected by respondents among seven factor proposed. The mean score of the awareness was 4.89 out of 5.0 scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). In the mean time, the least factor was climate as the mean score of 3.67. The mean score analysis on the impacts of waste disposal to environment, community and surrounding areas found that bad odor is the impact selected by most of respondents, with the mean score of 3.60, while the least impact was distribution of dengue disease with the mean score of 2.20. It can be concluded that the local authority need to take actions in more stringent ways to elevate the awareness of the people, since the high awareness may affect other factor to be better.

## Undergraduate Project #10: Siti Allawiyah Binti Che Ghani

Title:
Impacts of recent large flood on socio-economic life of the citizens of Kuala Krai, Kelantan

Session:
2015/2016

Abstract:

Unavailable.

## Undergraduate Project #9: Nor Ayati Binti Aziz

Title:
Campus sustainability from the perspectives of natural and built environment in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Campus, Johor Bahru.

Session:
2015/2016

Abstract:

Unavailable.