Introduction to Basic Anatomy & Physiology

This website meant to help students with their revision for the course Basic Anatomy and Physiology (SMBE1513) and Animal Physiology (SQBS3273). Revision is for topics covered by Saleha Shahar.

My main reference is Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 12th Ed. by Gerard J. Tortora and Bryan H. Derrickson.

I also used online videos and websites for additional references. The links will be provided where needed (but remember, these are supportive sources to help you understand your main notes, which comes from Tortora and Derrickson).


In our first class, you were introduced to examples of common terminology used in Anatomy and Physiology:

  • Metabolism – which can be divided into two categories; catabolism and anabolism
  • Differentiation – which is different from growth or reproduction
  • Homeostatis – which is regulated by two different responses; positive feedback and negative feedback
  • Aging and death – which is inevitable


Next, you were introduced with the six level of organizations that made up a complete anatomy and physiology:

  • Chemical level – which is divided into inorganic component (water) and organic components (generally, complex structure that contains carbon and hydrogen)
  • Cellular level – which shows how numerous organelles in a cell contribute to the specific function of a cell (you have to know these organelles and their functions)

Cellular level of organization by Bozeman Science

  • Tissue level – which essentially compose of four types of tissues; epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue (you have to know common examples for each types of tissue)

Tissue level of organization by Bozeman Science

  • Organ level
  • System level, and
  • Organismal level


In the next class, you will be introduced to the first system level of organization of the anatomy, the skeletal system.


  1. I remember starting A&P with Tortora’s textbook but the reinforcement into the basics and beyond came from Netter’s Atlas.

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