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Biochemical Engineering   Food Processing Engineering   Swiftlets  Edible Bird’s Nest 

TingHun

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Book

Edible Bird’s Nest: An Incredible Salivary Bioproduct from Swiftlets

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a highly prized food and tonic among several ethnic groups in Southeast Asia. China is becoming more affluent with EBN, and the overall demand of EBN is exploding. The recently established health effects of EBN have made it a highly expensive animal bioproduct. There are several discussions in the book which are expected to be useful to the general readers, swiftlet farmers and researchers. Owing to the amazing food and medicinal values of EBN, we are glad to bring these beautiful assets of EBN at a higher stage through this book; so that more and more populations can know about this wonderful bioproduct.

Publications

International Journal

1. Lee Ting Hun, Waseem A. Wani, Heng Yong Poh, Umair Baig, Eddie Tan Ti Tjih, Noor Idayu Nashiruddin, Yong Ee Ling and Ramlan Abdul Aziz. Gel Electrophoretic and Liquid Chromatographic Methods for the Identification and Authentication of Cave and House Nests from Common Adulterants. Analytical Methods, 2016, 8, 526-536. (IF = 1.915).
2. Waseem A. Wani, Umair Baig, Sheikh Shreaz, Rayees Ahmad Shiekh, Prince Firdous Iqbal, Ehtesham Jameel, Akil Ahmad, Siti Hamidah Mohamad Setapar, Md. Mushtaque and Lee Ting Hun. Recent Advances in Iron Complexes as Potential Anticancer Agents. New Journal of Chemistry, 2016, 40, 1063-1090. (IF = 3.227).
3. Waseem A. Wani, Ehtesham Jameel, Umair Baig, Syed Mumtazuddin and Lee Ting Hun. Ferroquine and its Derivatives: New Generation of Antimalarial Agents. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2015, 101, 534-551. (IF = 3.902).
4. Sheikh Shreaz, Waseem A. Wani, Vaseem Raja, Maribasappa Karched, Lee Ting Hun, Jawad Behbehani. Cinnamaldehyde and its Derivatives: New Generation Antifungal Agents. Fitoterapia, 2016, 112, 116-131. (IF = 2.408).
5. Lee Ting Hun, Shalom Wangrangsimakul, Waseem A. Wani, Ee Ling Yong, Ardawati Adnan, Eddie Ti Tjih, Lim Chew Ching, Ooi Siew Yin, Azila Aziz, Hesham A. El-Enshasy, Ramlan Aziz. Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase in Long Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) and the Changes in their Activities during Storage. Chiang Main Journal of Science, 2016, 43(X), 1-10. (IF = 0.420).
6. Umair Baig, Waseem A. Wani and Lee Ting Hun. Facile synthesis of electrically conductive polycarbazole-zirconium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite and its room temperature ammonia sensing performance. New Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 39, 6882-6891. (IF = 3.227).
7. Lee Ting Hun, Waseem A. Wani, Eddie Tan Ti Tjih, Nur Ardawati Adnan, Yong Le Ling, Ramlan Abdul Aziz. Investigations into the Physicochemical, Biochemical and Anti-bacterial Properties of Edible Bird’s Nest. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 2015, 7, 228-247. (IF = 0.35).
8. T.H.Lee, L.S.Chua, E.T.T.Tan, C.Yeong, C.C.Lim, S.Y.Ooi, R.A.Aziz and M.R.Sarmidi. (2009). Kinetics of Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase in Pineapple (Ananas comosus). Food Science and Biotechnology Journal Vol 18 (3) pp 661-666. (IF = 0.699)
9. Fadhilah Zainal Abidin, Chua Kien Hui, Ng Sook Luan, Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli, Lee Ting Hun and Norzana Abd Ghafar (2011). Effects of edible bird’s nest (EBN) on cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine . 11:94 (IF = 2.02)
10. Lee Suan Chua, Nor Amaiza Mohd Amin, Jason Chun Hong Neo, Ting Hun Lee, Chew Tin Lee, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi and Ramlan Abdul Aziz (2011). LC-MS/MS-based metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) in Malaysia (Perak and Pahang). Journal of chromatography B, 879: 3909-3919. (IF = 2.87)
11. Kien-Hui Chua, Ting-Hun Lee, Kamini Nagandran, Nor Hamdan Md Yahaya, Chew-Tin Lee, Eddie Tan Ti Tjih and Ramlan Abdul Aziz (2013). Edible Bird’se nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study. BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine 13:19. (IF = 2.64)
12. Ting Hun Lee, Waseem A. Wani, Yin Shin Koay, Supparmaniam Kavita, Tan Eddie Ti Tjih and Sheikh Shreaz (2017). Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird’s nest. Food Research International, 100: 14-27. (IF = 3.86)
13. Ting Hun Lee and Waseem A. Wani. The Future of Edible Bird’s Nest as a Neutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Animal Bioproduct. Insights in Clinical Pharmacology-OPR Science, 1:1.1.

International and National Proceeding

1. Lee Ting Hun and Waseem A. Wani. Gel Electrophoresis Ideally Identifies and Authenticates Cave and House Edible Bird’s Nests from Common Adulterants (OS07-02). 10th South East Asian Technical University Consortium (SEATUC) on 22-24 February 2016 at Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT), Japan.
2. Lee, T.H., Yoshiny, M., Chua, K.H. and Waseem, A.W. Effect of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) Extract on Human Breast Cancer and Immune Cells. Edible Bird’s Nest International Conference (EBNIC) on 11-12 October 2016 at Putrajaya, Malaysia.
3.

Lee, T. H., Tong, S. R., Waseem, A. W. and Lim Y. M. Preliminary Metabolite Profiling of Edible Bird’s Nests in Malaysia via Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Edible Bird’s Nest International Conference (EBNIC) on 11-12 October 2016 at Putrajaya, Malaysia.

4. Lee Ting Hun.  “Swiftlet Ranching: Elements to Consider” International Conference and Training on Swiftlet Ranching (ICOTOS 2011), Taman Tamadun Islam Convention Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, 17-19 July 2011. Presented as an Invited Speaker.
5.

Lee Ting Hun. “Edible Bird’s Nest: A Potential Product Breakthrough”. International Conference and Training on Swiftlet Ranching (ICOTOS 2011), Taman Tamadun Islam Convention Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, 17-19 July 2011. Presented as an Invited Speaker.

6.

Nagandran, K. Hui, C.K., Yahaya, N.H.M. Tin, L.C. Tjih, E.T.T. and Hun, L.T. “Edible Bird’s Nest Extract Improved Anabolic Mechanism In Chondrocyte Isolated from Osteoarthritic Articular Cartilage”. 3rd International Conference On Biotechnology for the Wellness Industry (ICBWI 2010), Putra World Trade Centre, 8-9 October 2010.

7.

Kamini, K.H. Chua, E.T.T. Tan and T.H. Lee (2009). Edible Bird’s Nest Extract Rejuvenate Skin By Increased Fibroblast Proliferation And Skin Matrixes Synthesis. 7th International Traditional & Complementary Medicine Conference and 2nd International Conference on Biotechnology for the Wellness Industry (7th INTRACOM-2nd ICBWI 2009). 23-26 July 2009. PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

8.

Kamini, T.H. Lee, K.H. Chua, N.H.M. Yahaya, E.T.T. Tan and C. T. Lee (2009) Edible Bird’s Nest Extract Promoted Cartilage Matrix Expression And Supressed The Catabolic Genes Expression In  Osteoarthritic  Chondrocytes. . 7th International Traditional & Complementary Medicine Conference and 2nd International Conference on Biotechnology for the Wellness Industry (7th INTRACOM-2nd ICBWI 2009). PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysiq

9. Tan, E.T.T., Lee, T.H., Sarmidi, M.R., Aziz, R.A., Chua, L.S. and Lee, C.T. (2009). Protein Extractability and Antioxidant Studies of Edible Bird’s Nest Extracts. International Scientific Conference on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (Food and Function 2009). 9-11 June 2009. Holiday Inn Hotel, Zilina, Slovakia, 47.
10. E.T.T.Tan. T.H.Lee, C.T.Lee, M.R.Sarmidi and R.A.Aziz. (2008). Amino Acids Studies of Edible Bird’s Nest. 1st International Conference on Biotechnology for the Wellness Industry. 5-6 August 2008. PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
11.

H.Lee, C.C.Lim, C.Yeong, S.Y. Ooi, E.T.T.Tan and R.A.Aziz. (2008). Thermal Inactivation of Peroxidase (POD) in Long Bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) 1st International Conference on Biotechnology for the Wellness Industry (ICBWI). 5-6 August 2008. PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

12.

Kamini, T.H. Lee, K.H. Chua, E.T.T. Tan and F.S. Siti (2008). The preliminary study on the effect of edible bird’s nest extract on human skin fibroblast proliferation. 1st International Conference on Biotechnology for the Wellness Industry (ICBWI). 5-6 August 2008. PWTC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

13. E.T.T.Tan, T.H.Lee, M.R.Sarmidi, R.A.Aziz and C.T.Lee. (2006). Morphological and Proximate Studies of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN). Asian Pacific Confederation of Chemical Engineering (11th APCChE Congress). 27-30 August 2006. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The Institution of Engineers Malaysia.
14. T.H.Lee, E.T.T.Tan, I.A.W. Tan, M.R. Sarmidi, R.A.Aziz and C.T.Lee. (2005). Preliminary Characterization of Bird’s Nest. Malaysia Science and Technology Congress (MSTC). 18-20 April 2005. Kuala Lumpur: Confederation of the Scientific and Technological Associations in Malaysia (COSTAM), 130.
15. T.H.Lee, E.T.T.Tan, C.Y. Chan, C.T.Lee, R.A.Aziz   and M.R.Sarmidi. (2005). Preliminary Study of Bird’s Nest Recovery Process. Malaysia Science and Technology Congress (MSTC). 18-20 April 2005. Kuala Lumpur: Confederation of the Scientific and Technological Associations in Malaysia (COSTAM), 131.
16. T.H.Lee, T.T.Tan, M.R. Sarmidi and R.A.Aziz. (2003) Preliminary Study of Blanching Diagnostic Kit for Vegetables and Fruits. International Conference on Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering (ICCBPE). 27-29 August 2003. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), 725.

Newspaper articles

1. Article “The Truth on Edible Bird’s Nest Nutritional Content”. Published in Nanyang Shang Pau, 22 August 2011.
2. Article “Bleaching Bird Nest”. Published in Nanyang Shang Pau, 22 August 2011.
3. Article “The Genuine Bird’s Nest”. Publishsed in China Press and Oriental Daily, 18 April 2005.
4. Article “Kaedah terbaru uji tahap penceluran hanya 5 minit” Published in Berita Harian 22 April 2004.
5. Article “Carte blanch” Published in New Sunday Times 18 April 2004.

Drafting of Malaysia Standard

1. Edible Birdnest (EBN)- Specification MS2334:2011
2. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for processing Raw-Unclean and Raw Clean Edible Birdnest (EBN) MS2333:2010
3. Good Animal Husbandry Practice MS 2273:2009

Patents

 

1. PI 20041745 Blanching Diagnostic Kit
2. PI2013700981 A Seed Removal Device
3. In Progress: Process for Identification of Geo Location of Avian Secretions

I Recommend You Read

Comparison of extraction methods of phytochemical compounds from white flower variety of Melastoma malabathricum

Phytochemical compounds from plants provide good nutrient value and give immense health benefits to human health. The selection of a suitable extraction method is vital to obtain the targeted phytochemical compounds. In this study, the phytochemical compounds in white flower variety of Melastoma malabathricum aerial parts were extracted using Conventional Soxhlet Extraction (CSE), Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Modified Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (MUAE). The extraction performance was evaluated based on phytochemical analysis including total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), total saponin, total polysaccharide and total protein contents. The antioxidant activity of M. malabathricum extract was also determined using Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis results showed significant effect (p<0.05) of MUAE method on TFC, TPC, total saponin, total polysaccharide, total protein content and DPPH (64.94 mg QE/g, 538.6 mg GAE/g, 1.87 mg EE/g, 320.05 mg GE/g, 399.32 mg BSA/g and 18 µg/mL respectively). Strong correlation effects between TFC (r = 0.992) and TPC (r = 0.993) on DPPH activity were observed. More than nineteen metabolites in M. malabathricum such as flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenes, tannins, steroid, quinic acid and triterpenoid were detected using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with orbitrap mass spectrometry, and verified based on standard mass spectra and generated theoretical fragment. These results indicate that adoption of MUAE increases the efficiency of phytochemical compounds extraction when compared to the other two extraction methods studied.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.315

Prevention of Enzymatic Browning by Natural Extracts and Genome-Editing: A Review on Recent Progress

Fresh fruits and vegetable products are easily perishable during postharvest handling due to enzymatic browning reactions. This phenomenon has contributed to a significant loss of food quality and appearance. Thus, a safe and effective alternative method from natural sources is needed to tackle enzymatic browning prevention. The capabilities of natural anti-browning agents derived from plant- and animal-based resources in inhibiting enzymatic activity have been demonstrated in the literature. Some also possess strong antioxidants properties. This review aims to summarize a recent investigation regarding the use of natural anti-browning extracts from different sources for controlling the browning. The potential applications of genome-editing in preventing browning activity and improving postharvest quality is also discussed. Moreover, the patents on the anti-browning extract from natural sources is also presented in this review. The information reviewed here could provide new insights, contributing to the development of natural anti-browning extracts and genome-editing techniques for the prevention of food browning.

Q1, Impact factor: 4.412

Editorial: Edible Bird’s Nest—Chemical Composition and Potential Health Efficacy and Risks

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a popular delicacy in the Asian Pacific region: this is a salivary secretion from several Aerodramus spp. swiftlets, mainly Aerodramus fuciphagus, which originated in Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The historical record of EBN for human consumption can be tracked back to about 1,500 years ago in China. Today, the consumption of EBN as food or as a medicinal product is very common in Asian populations. According to ancient literature, EBN is able to alleviate respiratory health conditions, such as asthma, and is believed to have an impact in skin physiology. Despite the potential functional roles and popularity of this ethnomedicine in Asian cultures, the pharmacological research on EBN is still very limited. These claims of beneficial effects are questionable due to the lack of strong supporting experimental evidence. On the other hand, the production of EBN today is totally depending on swiftlets. The natural habitat of swiftlets is varied according to their surrounding environment, which therefore greatly affects the final product of EBN. Foreign contaminants not related to bioactive proteins or peptides secreted from the swiftlet are frequently identified. The chemical variation, as well as possible contaminants, of EBN is inevitable, leading to possible risks for the consumers. Nevertheless, the scientific community should provide experimental evidence in identifying the chemical composition, pharmacological property, and diversity of contaminants of EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Amino acid determination by HPLC combined with multivariate approach for geographical classification of Malaysian Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is mainly used as a functional food where its quality is affected by many factors including geographical region. This study aims to differentiate the EBN from West Malaysia (WM) and East Malaysia (EM) based on amino acid profiles by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate approach. A total of 33 authentic EBN samples were collected from WM (n = 23) and EM (n = 10) for classification. The data obtained was used to identify the reliable potential markers between WM and EM via serial multivariate analysis including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). EBN samples from WM and EM were clearly distinguished by the developed OPLS-DA model with high prediction ability (Q2) of 62.7 %. The model’s robustness was validated and blind test samples were 100 % properly allocated to their respective groups. Glycine, cysteine, tryptophan and aspartic acid were proposed as potential markers to classify the EBN from WM and EM. Overall, the predictive model shows high accuracy for EBN classification.

Q1, Impact factor: 4.556

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

Scopus index

UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

Scopus index

Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Scopus index

Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

Amino acid determination by HPLC combined with multivariate approach for geographical classification of Malaysian Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is mainly used as a functional food where its quality is affected by many factors including geographical region. This study aims to differentiate the EBN from West Malaysia (WM) and East Malaysia (EM) based on amino acid profiles by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate approach. A total of 33 authentic EBN samples were collected from WM (n = 23) and EM (n = 10) for classification. The data obtained was used to identify the reliable potential markers between WM and EM via serial multivariate analysis including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). EBN samples from WM and EM were clearly distinguished by the developed OPLS-DA model with high prediction ability (Q2) of 62.7 %. The model’s robustness was validated and blind test samples were 100 % properly allocated to their respective groups. Glycine, cysteine, tryptophan and aspartic acid were proposed as potential markers to classify the EBN from WM and EM. Overall, the predictive model shows high accuracy for EBN classification.

Q1, Impact factor: 4.556

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

Scopus index

UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

Scopus index

Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Scopus index

Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

Scopus index

UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

Scopus index

Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Scopus index

Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

Scopus index

UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

Scopus index

Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Scopus index

Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

Scopus index

UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

Scopus index

Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Scopus index

Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

Scopus index

UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

Scopus index

Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

Scopus index

Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

Integrated ultrasound-mechanical stirrer technique for extraction of total alkaloid content from Annona muricata

Ultrasound-mechanical stirrer assisted extraction (UMSAE) of extraction yield, total alkaloid content (TAC) and antioxidant (DPPH) activity from Annona muricata leaves were optimized using response surface methodology. Five factors were screened using Plackett-Burman Design to investigate the variables that significantly influence the extraction yield, TAC and DPPH activity, namely solvent concentration, extraction time, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature. According to statistical significance analysis, solvent concentration, ultrasound power, plant material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were selected for further optimization of the UMSAE extraction process using a Central Composite Design. ANOVA results exhibited that the obtained models were significant at 95 % confidence level. Satisfactory extraction yields (26.38 %) and TAC (39.73 mg AE/g) were obtained with relatively short extraction time under the optimum conditions compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction. The extract prepared under UMSAE displayed excellent DPPH activity (93.15 %). The optimized UMSAE promoted considerable yield increases 1.59-fold the yield extract, 2.32-fold TAC, and 1.19-fold antioxidant activity if compared to the Soxhlet extraction. This study provides the ideal integrated UMSAE settings for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content with high antioxidant activity from A. muricata for possible utilization of their leaves in food applications.

Q2, Impact factor: 3.757

Geographical Factor Influences the Metabolite Distribution of House Edible Bird's Nests in Malaysia

Background: Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia.

Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution.

Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.

Q1, Impact factor: 6.576

Edible Bird’s Nest: The Functional Values of the Prized Animal-Based Bioproduct From Southeast Asia–A Review

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined. 

Q1, Impact factor: 5.810

Differentiation Unclean and Cleaned Edible Bird's Nest using Multivariate Analysis of Amino Acid Composition Data

Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.

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UPLC-orbitrap-MS/MS based characterization of phytochemical compounds from Malaysia purple corn (Zea mays)

Purple corn (Zea mays) is one of the newly introduced important cash crops in Malaysia. It is a fast turnover crop, health-promoting that partially due to the secondary metabolite composition. However, little is known on its content and its secondary metabolite since it is first planted in Malaysia. Purple corn kernels were extracted in 1.5 N HCl-95% ethanol and the extracted compounds were separated on a C18 column followed by an extensive characterization using UPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS method in two ionization modes. A total of 12 metabolite compounds belong to different chemical groups (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, ester, and fatty acid) and other organic compounds were tentatively identified, offering the first qualitative analysis available on the phytochemicals from purple corn. The data obtained in this study will provide a better understanding on the chemical composition of purple corn in Malaysia and hence, it could be used in food product developments and nutraceutical research based on this newly introduced crop.

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Edible bird’s nest: A potential product breakthrough

EBN (known in Chinese as Yan Wo, Indonesia as Sarang Walet, and Japanese as Enso) is the dried glutinous secretion of the salivary glands from Southern Asia swiftlets. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) was a significant item in the cuisine and pharmacy of the Emperors of China during the 16th century (Lau and Melville, 1994). EBN has been known considered to be one of the most precious food items by the Chinese for thousands of years (Ou et al., 2001). The EBN industry is a multimillion dollar enterprise as EBN is valued at USD 1600/kg and is one of the industries that are not affected by the global recession (Yeap, 2002).
In general, EBN can be divided into cave nest (harvested from natural caves) and house nest (made in attic of the countryside house/cultivated in buildings). Dried and cleaned EBN is double-boiled with sugar to become bird’s nest soup for consumption. The advancement in technology enabled a large variety of EBN-related products emerged in the market. These products are readily serves in canned or precooked form. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), EBN is believed to offer good effects for treating consumptive disease, curing tuberculosis, dry coughs, alleviating asthma, stomach ulcer, relieving gastric troubles and general

Effects of Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) on Cultured Rabbit Corneal Keratinocytes

There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird’s nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Edible Bird’s nest extract as a chondro-protective agent for human chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knee: in vitro study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA. A single batch of EBN extract was prepared with hot-water extraction and coded as HMG. HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. The optimum concentration of HMG for HAC cultures was determined using MTT assay. The effect of HMG on the catabolic and anabolic genes’ expression in HACs was measured by real-time PCR. The total amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was determined by ELISA method, and the total sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) production was quantified by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. MTT assay showed 0.50% – 1.00% HMG supplementation promoted HACs proliferation. HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes’ expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly reduced in HAC cultures supplemented with HMG. With regard to anabolic activity assessment, type II collagen, Aggrecan and SOX-9 gene expression as well as sGAG production was increased in the HMG supplemented groups. Edible Bird’s Nest extract coded as HMG demonstrated chondro-protection ability on human articular chondrocytes in vitro. It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. It is concluded that HMG is a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.109

Investigations into the physicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of Edible Bird’s Nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) islong known as a delicacy and medicine among the Chinese communities all over the world. This work reports thephysicochemical, biochemical and antibacterial properties of EBN obtained from the swiftlet premises in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Carbohydrates (46.47%) and proteins (35.8%) were the major constituents, with little fats (1.5%) and no fibre. Amino acid analysis by AccQ. Tag method revealed all eighteen types of amino acids including the eight essential ones. The heavy metal contents were within infant formula specification limits. Sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium were the major minerals found. Alkaline conditions and heat treatment were the parameters that significantly affected the protein extraction from EBN. Out of the four EBN extracts (Run 1, Run 10, Oda and Goh) prepared; Run 10 had the highest protein content and anti-oxidant power, however, no direct correlations between protein content and the anti-oxidant power could be established. Oda and Goh extracts produced visible bands in the electrophoretic analysis in comparison to the Run 10 and Run 1 extracts. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

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Gel electrophoretic and liquid chromatographic methods for the identification and authentication of cave and house edible bird's nests from common adulterants

The increasing demands for edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have remarkably increased their price. Presently, several fake materials are being adulterated into EBNs for the purpose of earning extra profits. In order to identify the adulterants and authenticate EBN, efforts were made to investigate and compare the protein and amino acid profiles of cave and house EBNs with white fungus, jelly, fish swimming bladder and egg white. The protein profiling indicated 10 bands for cave nests with two strong bands at 30 and 35 kDa. House nest proteins consisted of 9 bands with major bands at 120 and 140 kDa. White fungus displayed three dim bands at 22, 35 and 75 kDa whereas egg white was found to contain two predominant bands at 35 and 75 kDa. Fish swimming bladder showed substantial streaking of protein bands after dilution whereas the protein profile of jelly did not present any band. The amino acid analysis revealed that EBN consisted of 17 types of amino acids. The major amino acids in cave and house nests were aspartic acid, arginine, histidine & leucine, and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine & leucine, respectively. White fungus consisted of 16 types of amino acids in concentrations lower than that in EBN samples. Fish swimming bladder was rich in 6 amino acids. Egg white contained 16 types of amino acids with aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine in major quantities. However, jelly was found to contain no amino acids at all. Both the analytical procedures provided finger print profiles of the protein and amino acid compositions of the cave and house nests distinct from the adulterants. These results taken together can be used for the identification and authentication of any of these fake materials in EBN.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.073

Recent advances in the identification and authentication methods of edible bird's nest

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an expensive animal bioproduct due to its reputation as a food and delicacy with diverse medicinal properties. One kilogram of EBN costs ~$6000 in China. EBN and its products are consumed in mostly Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, making up almost 1/3 of world population. The rapid growth in EBN consumption has led to a big rise in the trade scale of its global market. Presently, various fake materials such as tremella fungus, pork skin, karaya gum, fish swimming bladder, jelly, agar, monosodium glutamate and egg white are used to adulterate EBNs for earning extra profits. Adulterated or fake EBN may be hazardous to the consumers. Thus, it is necessary to identify of the adulterants. Several sophisticated techniques based on genetics, immunochemistry, spectroscopy, chromatography and gel electrophoresis have been used for the detection of various types of adulterants in EBN. This article describes the recent advances in the authentication methods for EBN. Different genetic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and analytical methods such as genetics (DNA) based techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and chromatographic and gel electrophoretic methods have been discussed. Besides, significance of the reported methods that might pertain them to applications in EBN industry has been described. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the authentication methods for EBN.

Q1, Impact factor: 3.520

Characterization of Polar and Non‐Polar Compounds of House Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) from Johor, Malaysia

This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non‐polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16‐173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ•Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High‐Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time‐of‐Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC‐QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with EtOAC and n‐BuOH. The EtOAc extract was fractionated into 3 fractions (F1‐F3), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by GC‐FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43% of poly‐unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74% of mono‐unsaturated fat (MUFA). These results were first to report EBN n‐BuOH and EtOAc extracts and fraction F2 (TEBN) were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxanase and anti‐tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity determination in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigour. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.

Q2, Impact factor: 2.039

Untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites of edible bird’s nest through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.

Scopus index

If you have any questions, please contact me.

-Dr. Lee Ting Hun-

Contact

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

School of Chemical and Energy Engineering

EMAIL Me

leetinghun@utm.my