Plant physiology is an integrative disciplines that answers questions about plant physiology (their function) from seed germination to vegetative growth, maturation and flowering. In this course, several aspect of plant physiology which include plant water relations, water transportation, transpiration & phloem transport as well as mineral requirements. The basis of nomenclature and herbarium techniques for plant conservation will also be discussed. The mechanism involve in photosynthesis, respiration and lipid pathways will also be discussed. This courses also emphasize the roles of plant hormones and phytochromes in plant development & flowering respectively and secondary metabolites in plant defense. Other than that plant adaptation to environmental stress was also discussed.