## The Meaning of Validity

Validity is defined as the degree of agreement between the claimed measurement and the real world. There are four categories of validity test, namely: Content validity - Seeks to answer the question of whether the current test covers all … [Continue reading]

## Population and Sampling Frame

A population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusion about. A sampling frame is a list of all the items in your population. The specific group that you will collect data from. The size of the sample is always less than the total size … [Continue reading]

## Sampling

Probability sampling: Simple random sampling - It is reliable method of obtaining information where every single member of a population is chosen randomly, merely by chance. Each individual has the same probability of being chosen to be a part of … [Continue reading]

## Qualitative vs Quantitative vs Mixed Methods

Degree of predetermined nature: Quantitative - Predetermined; Mixed - Both predetermined and emerging methods; Qualitative - Emerging methods Questions: Quantitative - Instrument based; Mixed - Both open- and closed-ended; Qualitative - … [Continue reading]

## Sample Size

How to decide the research sample size? Choose an appropriate significance level (alpha value). An alpha value of p=.05 is commonly used. This means that the probability that the results found are due to chance alone is 0.05, or 5%, and 95% of the … [Continue reading]

## Definition of the Scope of Study

The scope of a study explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters within the study will be operating. Basically, this means that you will have to define what the study is going to cover … [Continue reading]

## Guidelines for Writing The Scope of The Study

Time period: While writing the scope of the study the researcher should first mention or state categorically the time periods the study will cover. Generally, the researchers combine the scope of the study with the limitation of the … [Continue reading]