This study presents the meshless Point Interpolation Method (PIM) formulation to solve the kinematic wave equation for flood routing. It details on Galerkin residual method employing PIM shape functions in discretizing the unsteady partial differential equation. Two nonlinear solvers are considered; Picard and Newton-Raphson. The formulation is verified against both hypothetical data obtained from conventional numerical methods (finite difference and finite element method) and gauged data obtained from an actual river. Close agreements are obtained between the proposed PIM formulation and the conventional methods, thus highlight the potential of PIM as an alternative numerical method in the field of hydrologic modeling.
The main aim of this research work is to assess the performance of the various mass transfer-based method with respect to standard FAO56-PM. Daily meteorological data from 1979 to 2018 has been used to compute reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The climatic data from 1979 to 2006 were used for the development of the calibrated equations and data from 2007 to 2018 were applied for validation purpose. The evaluated, calibrated and further validation of calibrated models were compared using statistical tools in order to ranked the models effectiveness using Global Performance Indicator (GPI) where higher GPI value shows better model. The models were then arranged using GPI and it was found that proposed model resulted with best GPI value of 5.02, 2.85 and 5.19 during evaluation, calibration and validation respectively followed by Albrecht model. The results of this study could be used by the water management system, crop cultivators, crop advisors, researchers from research centres. Moreover, it is beneficial for the decision maker in the vast field of agriculture, hydrology and environment. The calibration and validation of different ETo equations tend to increase their performance. Thus, the validated evapotranspiration model that used less climatic parameters can predict the ETo condition accurately for Asir region.