Cryptography: Modes of Operation

Five modes of operation, called

  1. Electronic Codebook (ECB) – Group 1 & 6
  2. Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) – Group 2, 7 & 11
  3. Cipher Feedback (CFB) – Group 3, 8 & 12
  4. Output Feedback (OFB) – Group 4, 9 & 13
  5. Counter (CTR) – Group – 5 & 10

Each group may execute our CL activity based on modes of operation given.


Scaffolding for our cooperative learning (CL) activity.

Besides our notes, here we have six interesting related contents and research works that you may refer to:

Block Ciphers Encryption Modes & Use DES to Construct Stream Ciphers pg. 27-38 by Fabio Martignon LRI, France.

Evaluation Criteria (Modes of Operation) by Murat Kantarcioglu, UTD Dallas.

FIPS81 DES Modes of Operation by NIST.

Modes of Operation Properties by David Kohel, USYD Sydney.

Error Propagation in Various Cipher Block Modes by Karel Burda, BrnoUT Czech Republic.

Block Ciphers Modes of Operation by Tutorialspoint.

You may refer to other resources also for references.

Explore & enjoy.

-msrashidah UTM (updated Dec, 2021)