1. Purposeful

  • Needs clarity on WHY the study is conducted
  • Has clear, well thought out, specific, focused answerable questions
  • Has transparent connection to the context: school, classroom, students, teacher, needs, etc.
  • Demonstrates the object is worth studying via the revision of literature and research

2. Methodologically appropriate

  • Shows appropriate selection of research methods
  • Show methods are suitable for addressing the questions
  • Justifies the choice of methods
  • Shows awareness of the limitations of methods

3. Technically competent

  • Good, clear, research design (writes a theoretical argument for the design of instruments, but instruments must also be well designed and administered)
  • The research design is carried out skillfully (all stages must show technical competence, including that of data analytics)
  • Technical competence contributes to give validity and reliability to a study.

4. Contributive

  • Provide new insight into old issues
  • Extends findings of previous research
  • Present new ways of dealing with research issues
  • Gives further theoretical insights
  • Focuses on object from an innovative perspective
  • Contributes with practical implications for teachers, policy makers, teacher educators, learners, institutions, that is, has an impact on practice

5. Ethical

  • Cares for the participants

6. Self-critical

  • Aware of its own biases
  • Cares for terminology
  • Appropriate selection of methods (techniques and instruments)
  • Clean analysis of data

7. Coherent

  • Skill at communicating, both in written and in oral presentations
  • Presents the appropriate amount of data as to clearly show the picture of the study
  • Clear relation among questions, methods, design, answer, conclusions, etc.