Category Archives: Teaching Portfolio

Teaching observation

Teaching observation is one of the component in Baseline Competencies for Differentiated Career Path (BC4DCP) for a new academic staff. Before the teaching observation session, several documents should be prepared such as teaching observation plan, course information as well as the slide of presentation (lecture note). After completing the teaching observation for one hour, we should submit the reflection on teaching observation within 7 days.

My teaching observation has been conducted at week 6 virtually via webex. The panel is Dr. Rohaya binti Talib. She’s very strict but she has taught me on how to improve in my teaching plan and execution. All in all, I learned that mistakes are meant to teach us, for the betterment of ourselves.

Most importantly, the creative and proactive elements whilst teaching. The reason is, it will greatly contribute in students’ interest towards the lesson apart from and enliven a fun learning environment. This could be achieved by blending the art and science to the teaching practices.

Assessment vs. Evaluation

The comparison of Assessment and Evaluation includes:

No. Dimension of Difference Assessment Evaluation
1. Timing Formative Summative
2. Focus of measurement Process-oriented Product-oriented
3. Relationship between administrator and recipient Reflective Prescriptive
4. Findings, uses thereof Diagnostic Judgmental
5. Ongoing modifiability of criteria, measures thereof Flexible Fixed
6. Standards of measurement Absolute Comparative
7. Relation between objects of assessment or evaluation Cooperative Competitive

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adibah

Types of Assessment (Function)

Assessment “FOR”/ “OF”/ “AS” Learning?

  1. Assessment FOR Learning:
  • continuous assessment
  • learning evidence (process)
  • give feedback to students and how to improve

2. Assessment OF Learning:

  • at the end of learning
  • learning evidence (product)
  • give judgment on student’s achievement

3. Assessment AS Learning:

  • students monitor their own learning
  • use self assessment

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adibah


Assessment can be divided into two:

  1. Formative (continuously)
  2. Summative (at the end of lesson).

Both assessments can be split into traditional or alternative and can be conducted via offline or online examination.

Under online examination, it can be in the form of asynchronous or synchronous.

1. Synchronous:

a) Traditional:

  • Manual invigilation
  • Online proctoring
  • Without invigilation and proctoring

2. Asynchronous:

a) Traditional:

  • Restricted responses
  • Extended responses

b) Alternative:

  • Performance based.

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adibah

Outcomes Based Education (OBE)

What is OBE?

  • educational program includes:
    • well defined outcomes
    • graduates with skills
    • graduates with abilities
    • meet needs of stakeholders

Elements of OBE:

  • defining educational objectives or goals
  • defining educational outcomes that the graduates would be able to do at the time of graduation
  • identifying the stakeholders and their involvement in articulating and evaluating the education objectives and outcomes

OBE in general:

  1. clarify intended learning outcomes
  2. collect data on student attainment of outcomes
  3. feedback data to academics for improvement
  4. design aligned teaching, learning and assessment

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nazihah

Characteristics of a good course learning outcome

There are four criteria of a good CLO namely:

  1. each course will usually have between 3 to 5 major outcomes
  2. should be written in clear language and in the future tense
  3. these outcomes should be the same across courses with the same code
  4. begin with an action verb such as (write, install, solve, and apply)

Three (3) components of CLO either the combination of:

A: Audience

B: Behavior/ verb

C: Condition

D: Degree/ standard

At the end of the course, students should be able to evaluate the quality of two examination papers for Multiple Choice Question and Essay Question based on Classical Test Theory Analysis.

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adibah

Constructive Alignment and Its Steps

The meaning of Constructive:

  • Constructivist theory that learners using their own activity to construct their knowledge as interpreted through their own existing schemata

The definition of Alignment:

  • Principle in curriculum theory that assessment tasks should be aligned to what it is intended to be learned, as in criterion referenced assessment

Steps on Constructive Alignment:

  1. Program educational objectives (PEO)
  2. Program learning outcomes (PLO)
  3. Graduate attributes (GA)/ Graduate skills (GS)
  4. Course learning outcomes (CLO)
  5. Topic/ Unit learning outcomes (ULO)

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adibah

Elements of 21st Century Learning

Below is the list of learning elements towards 21st century:

  1. corner and capstone projects
  2. New academia learning innovation (NALI)
  3.  First year experience (FYE)
  4. E-portfolio
  5. Third language
  6. Constructive alignment
  7. Programming/ coding skills
  8. Service learning
  9. New general courses
  10. PLO and CLO review (UTM Graduate Attributes)
  11. Multidisciplinary course/ projects

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nazihah

Future Ready Curriculum Framework

Future Ready Curriculum Framework can be divided into three. They are:

  1. Fluid and Organic Curriculum Structure
  • convergent disciplines
  • multidisciplinary
  • interdisciplinary
  • transdisciplinary
  • flexible and non-conventional
  • involvement of industry
  • global

2. Transformative Delivery in Teaching and Learning

  • pedagogy: 21st century
  • learning environment
  • immersive learning based on experience

3. Holistic Assessment

  • profile assessment
  • authentic/ progress assessment
  • integration assessment
  • assessment based on challenge

* Adapted from BC4DCP course by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nazihah